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Uganda Vision 2040 recognizes the rapid population growth, young age structure and consequent high child dependency burden as the main threats to the achievement of the envisaged socio-economic development. However, the Vision document underscores harnessing the Demographic Dividend as instrumental in facilitating socio-economic  transformation by turning the erstwhile population burden into an asset. The demographic dividend is an opportunity for economic growth, development, and improved well-being that arises as a result of changes in the population age structure. When fertility rates decline significantly, the share of the working-age population increases in relation to previous years. The larger working-age population, if properly nurtured, can enable a country increase GDP and raise incomes.