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Guided by the various policy scenarios, harnessing the demographic dividend has become the defining message about the connection between family planning and accelerated economic growth for socioeconomic development. The Demographic Dividend report, has continued to guide discussions on population issues in Uganda. The presentations “Harnessing the Demographic Dividend” have catalyzed national discussions on family planning and population issues to the extent that, we see a changed stance on family planning and population messaging by President Museveni, than never before. 

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More than ever before, there is global consensus that the path to sustainable development for the next 15 years must be built on a foundation of equality, inclusiveness and universal enjoyment of rights. Several studies have further indicated that closing the gender gap can accelerate development. In this regard, all the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) address issues of gender equality and ensuring that nobody is left behind. Goal 5 and 10 are specific on gender equality and addressing inequalities. SDG 5: Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls, calls for gender equality and empowerment, including but not limited to ending all forms of violence and discrimination against all women and girls, as well as ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights.

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Uganda is one of the top ten countries in the world that hosts the largest number of refugees. As of August 31st, 2017, the number of refugees arriving in the country had reached 1,355,764 more than at any time in the country’s history. Eighty six percent of the refugees are women and children below 18 years . UNFPA plays a leading role in ensuring access to life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; preventing and responding to gender-based violence (GBV); and empowering women, adolescent girls and young people in refugee hosting districts. Since 2013 UNFPA has been working closely with the Government of Uganda, sister United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations, community-based organizations and other partners to ensure that sexual and reproductive health is integrated into emergency programming. 

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Uganda is one of the top ten countries in the world that hosts the largest number of refugees. As of October 1, 2017, the number of refugees arriving in the country had reached 1,381,207 more than at any time in the country’s history. Eighty six percent of the refugees are women and children below 18 years . UNFPA plays a leading role in ensuring access to life-saving sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services; preventing and responding to gender-based violence (GBV); and empowering women, adolescent girls and young people in refugee hosting districts.
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Uganda’s labour force must be well educated and endowed with high quality skills that will make the country competitive in the global market.  In order to achieve this, investments must be made in improving school completion and transition rates for girls and boys across all educational levels as these are indicated in this report as existing gaps in education.
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The monograph points to major gaps in the education sector which include enrollment disparities in terms of gender, region and special needs. It is important that investments are made to improve enrollment of boys and girls in regions like Karamoja which face huge gender disparities and enrollment for girls and boys living with disabilities.
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Uganda’s annual population growth is 3%, meaning 1,200,000 Ugandans are born every year. A total of 34.8% of Uganda’s 34.6 million population are adolescents with a similar sex distribution. Uganda’s dependency ratio is 103. Per 100 working age adults in Uganda, there are 103 dependents.

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To a significant extent, the emerging face of poverty in the country is the face of a young person. They are the new capable poor.  Despite their potential to lead economic and social change, insufficient investment have been made to develop their human capital. As a result, they face increased likelihood of future dependency, lower earnings and poor health outcomes.

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HIV infection, sexual and reproductive ill health and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are major public health concerns for Uganda, linked together in a complex cycle of causes and consequences.   To better address these complex issues and to meet the Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and HIV prevention needs of Ugandans it is important to prioritise innovative service delivery solutions. Integration of SRH/HIV services is one such approach.

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As of 2015, 1,500,000 people were living with HIV in Uganda. Among adults, HIV prevalence among adults aged 15-49 stands at 7.1%; while among women it stands at 8.3%. Evidence-based prevention programs, such as condom programming, voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), key population programs, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are cost-effective when they focus on those affected most. But we still have a long way to go.

 
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